Iron deficiency is a health-related condition in which iron availability is insufficient to meet the body’s needs and which can be present with or without anemia.2
The causes of iron deficiency in heart failure patients can be multifactorial2, including:
Iron deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia that occurs when iron levels are insufficient to generate healthy red blood cells.7
Approximately 6.5 million adults in the United States have iron deficiency anemia8
Iron deficiency anemia accounts for 50% of all cases of anemia worldwide9
In iron deficiency, depleted iron stores are due to an imbalance between iron uptake and iron utilization. Anemia may not be present initially because of iron recycling from erythrocyte turnover, but the persistence of a negative balance can lead to microcytic and hypochromic anemia.10 Low iron levels can develop due to a variety of factors. Click on two common contributing factors below to learn more:
Female patients can be impacted by blood loss through abnormal menstrual periods, bleeding fibroids, heavy uterine bleeding (HUB), and childbirth. For all patients, however, blood loss may not be obvious as it may occur slowly and internally. Some examples of this are:
Poor diet could include not eating iron-rich foods regularly. There are certain stages in your patients’ lives where their need for iron increases, for example, pregnancy. During these times, diet alone may not provide these patients the iron their body needs. It is important to distinguish between the two types of iron that people consume: heme and non-heme. Heme iron derives primarily from meat and non-heme iron is sourced from plants. Meat, poultry, and fish are some of the best sources of heme iron. Vegetarian diets may be a good source of non-heme iron if these patients eat the right foods:
Heme iron is more easily absorbed into the body than non-heme iron, and heme iron is also the better type of iron to replenish those systems that are iron deficient.
Injectafer® (ferric carboxymaltose injection) is indicated for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in adult and pediatric patients 1 year of age and older who have either intolerance or an unsatisfactory response to oral iron, and in adult patients who have non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease. Injectafer is also indicated for iron deficiency in adult patients with heart failure and New York Heart Association class II/III to improve exercise capacity.
Injectafer is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to Injectafer or any of its inactive components.
Symptomatic hypophosphatemia with serious outcomes including osteomalacia and fractures requiring clinical intervention has been reported in patients treated with Injectafer in the post-marketing setting. These cases have occurred mostly after repeated exposure to Injectafer in patients with no reported history of renal impairment. However, symptomatic hypophosphatemia has been reported after one dose. Possible risk factors for hypophosphatemia include a history of gastrointestinal disorders associated with malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins or phosphate, inflammatory bowel disease, concurrent or prior use of medications that affect proximal renal tubular function, hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D deficiency, and malnutrition. In most cases, hypophosphatemia resolved within three months.
Correct pre-existing hypophosphatemia prior to initiating therapy with Injectafer. Monitor serum phosphate levels in patients at risk for chronic low serum phosphate. Check serum phosphate levels prior to a repeat course of treatment in patients at risk for low serum phosphate and in any patient who receives a second course of therapy within three months. Treat hypophosphatemia as medically indicated.
Serious hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylactic-type reactions, some of which have been life- threatening and fatal, have been reported in patients receiving Injectafer. Patients may present with shock, clinically significant hypotension, loss of consciousness, and/or collapse. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity during and after Injectafer administration for at least 30 minutes and until clinically stable following completion of the infusion. Only administer Injectafer when personnel and therapies are immediately available for the treatment of serious hypersensitivity reactions. In clinical trials, serious anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions were reported in 0.1% (2/1775) of subjects receiving Injectafer. Other serious or severe adverse reactions potentially associated with hypersensitivity which included, but were not limited to, pruritus, rash, urticaria, wheezing, or hypotension were reported in 1.5% (26/1775) of these subjects.
In clinical studies, hypertension was reported in 4% (67/1775) of subjects in clinical trials 1 and 2. Transient elevations in systolic blood pressure, sometimes occurring with facial flushing, dizziness, or nausea were observed in 6% (106/1775) of subjects in these two clinical trials. These elevations generally occurred immediately after dosing and resolved within 30 minutes. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of hypertension following each Injectafer administration.
In the 24 hours following administration of Injectafer, laboratory assays may overestimate serum iron and transferrin bound iron by also measuring the iron in Injectafer.
In two randomized clinical studies [Studies 1 and 2], a total of 1775 patients were exposed to Injectafer, 15 mg/kg of body weight, up to a maximum single dose of 750 mg of iron on two occasions, separated by at least 7 days, up to a cumulative dose of 1500 mg of iron. Adverse reactions reported by >2% of Injectafer-treated patients were nausea (7.2%); hypertension (4%); flushing (4%); injection site reactions (3%); erythema (3%); hypophosphatemia (2.1%); and dizziness (2.1%).
The safety of Injectafer in pediatric patients was evaluated in Study 3. Study 3 was a randomized, active- controlled study in which 40 patients (1 to 12 years of age: 10 patients, 12 to 17 years of age: 30 patients) received Injectafer 15 mg/kg to a maximum single dose of 750 mg (whichever was smaller) on Days 0 and 7 for a maximum total dose of 1500 mg; 38 patients evaluable for safety in the control arm received an age- dependent formulation of oral ferrous sulfate for 28 days. The median age of patients who received Injectafer was 14.5 years (range, 1-17); 83% were female; 88% White and 13% Black. The most common adverse reactions (≥4%) were hypophosphatemia (13%), injection site reactions (8%), rash (8%), headache (5%), and vomiting (5%).
The safety of Injectafer was evaluated in adult patients with iron deficiency and heart failure in randomized controlled trials FAIR-HF (NCT00520780), CONFIRM-HF (NCT01453608) and AFFIRM-AHF (NCT02937454) in which 1016 patients received Injectafer versus 857 received placebo. The overall safety profile of Injectafer was consistent across the studied indications.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of Injectafer. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
The following adverse reactions have been reported from the post-marketing spontaneous reports with Injectafer: cardiac disorders: tachycardia; general disorders and administration site conditions: chest discomfort, chills, pyrexia; metabolism and nutrition disorders: hypophosphatemia; musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: arthralgia, back pain, hypophosphatemic osteomalacia; nervous system disorders: syncope; respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: dyspnea; skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: angioedema, erythema, pruritus, urticaria; pregnancy: fetal bradycardia.
Untreated IDA in pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal outcomes such as postpartum anemia. Adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with IDA include increased risk for preterm delivery and low birth weight.
Severe adverse reactions including circulatory failure (severe hypotension, shock including in the context of anaphylactic reaction) may occur in pregnant women with parenteral iron products (such as Injectafer) which may cause fetal bradycardia, especially during the second and third trimester.
You are encouraged to report Adverse Drug Events to American Regent, Inc. at 1-800-734-9236 or to the FDA by visiting www.fda.gov/medwatch or calling 1-800-FDA-1088.